SODIUM BICARBONATE, ALSO known as baking soda, is a type of salt that can be found in crystalline rock formations in nature. Bicarbonate, the acid-neutralizing portion of sodium bicarbonate, is naturally produced by the human body and used to buffer excess acidity.1
Since one of the metabolic hallmarks of a cancer cell, as first described by Dr. Otto Warburg in 1930,2 is elevated production of lactic acid,3-8 which “directly contributes to tumor growth and progression,”9 it seems reasonable to predict that cancer patients could benefit from additional bicarbonate.
The fizz that captured our amazement as children after adding baking soda and vinegar together was sodium bicarbonate rapidly neutralizing the acid and producing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a result. Similarly, once inside the body, bicarbonate is converted into carbon dioxide;10 so when we’re talking about sodium bicarbonate, essentially what we’re dealing with is carbon dioxide, which opens the door to some fascinating lines of research.
The relationship between carbon dioxide and life itself is entirely misunderstood by most people in the medical profession and by society as a whole. We’ve been told that carbon dioxide is a toxic environmental pollutant causing dangerous increases in temperature that threaten the existence of life on earth. However, like many things we’re told by politicians and the media, the reality is far different. One of the best ways to learn about carbon dioxide is to examine what happens to various life forms when they are exposed to increased concentrations of it.
Found naturally in the hot, arid regions of eastern Africa, the naked mole rat is a type of rodent that lives strictly underground in large colonies. Remarkably, naked mole rats reproduce for their entire lifespans,12 they don’t feel pain after being burnt with acid,11 their brains can withstand over 30 minutes without oxygen without damage137 and in their natural habitats, they are immune to cancer.13 And while the average lifespan for most rats is less than two years,14,15 the naked mole rat can live an astounding 30 years,16,17 making it the longest-lived rodent known.18
The exceptional longevity and disease resistance of the naked mole rat have researchers calling it “a true ‘supermodel’ for aging research and resistance to chronic age-associated diseases.”19 Yet despite decades of research, scientists still haven’t been able to determine the reasons behind the mole rat’s longevity, even in the most recent studies.20-22 Perhaps it’s because they’re searching for a genetic explanation rather than simply examining the naked mole rat’s natural environment.
“They live in burrows that are kept closed, so the percentage of oxygen is lower than in the outside air, and the percentage of carbon dioxide ranges from 0.2% to 5%,” explains Dr. Raymond Peat.23 A 2005 study by Israeli scientists investigated the oxygen and carbon dioxide content in burrows of three species of subterranean mole rats and found that maximal CO2 levels were 6.1% and minimal O2 levels were 7.2%.24
|Air on Earth||0.04%||20.95%|
|Mole Rat Burrow||6.1%||7.2%|
Researchers at the College of Staten Island in New York re-created these environmental conditions in their laboratory and examined its effects on a colony of naked mole rats in 2010. Although they hypothesized the environment would have a negative impact on the activity, memory and social interaction of the rats, what they found was the complete opposite. When the rats were put into an environment of decreased oxygen (hypoxic) and increased carbon dioxide (hypercapnic) they became more social, had significantly improved brain function and their overall movements increased by 76.8%.25
In honey bee hives, worker bees carefully regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide, which can be as high at 6%.26 Remarkably, the lifespan of a queen bee is more than 40-times that of a worker bee.27 So while the queen is in the hive, protected by high concentrations of carbon dioxide, the worker bees are out breathing regular atmospheric air and consuming pollen, which is high in unsaturated fat and produces large amounts of free radicals in the absence of carbon dioxide.
Bats are physiologically the same as mice and as such are destined to live similar lifespans. However, the oldest-surviving bat ever documented is a tiny bat from Siberia that lived more than 41 years in the wild.28 Researchers measuring the air quality in caves where bats roost have discovered that carbon dioxide concentrations are significantly higher than in the outside air. For example, in Drum Cave, Bungonia, New South Wales, Australia, “the CO2 concentration rises to over 6% in summer when a nursery colony, which contains more than 1000 unidentified bats, is present…”29
People living at high altitudes have shown a similar resiliency to the long-lived creatures above, including reduced rates of heart disease30-34 and cancer35-39 compared to people living at sea level.
What’s the link between living at altitude and carbon dioxide? The decrease in oxygen pressure that occurs at elevation means there is less oxygen pressure pushing carbon dioxide out of cells, allowing the body to retain more carbon dioxide – a phenomenon known as the Haldane effect.40,211
In 2009, a Swiss study involving 1.64 million people found that the benefits of altitude begin at an elevation of about 900m and that for every 1000m increase in elevation, mortality from heart disease decreases by 22% and mortality from stroke decreases by 12%.34 San Francisco and Philadelphia researchers reported a 12.7% drop in the incidence of lung cancer for every 1000m increase in elevation.35
For over 100 years, carbon dioxide has been used to increase the productivity of greenhouse crops.41 In 1978, scientists from the University of British Columbia, Canada, found that tomato plants grown in greenhouses with enhanced CO2 concentrations, “flowered earlier and produced more marketable fruit than those grown in normal air.”42 Peanuts,43 rice,44 ginger,45 and lettuce46 have also displayed elevated growth performance when cultivated in environments enriched with CO2, and these growth-enhancing benefits also extend to grasses,48 trees,49-51 tobacco,52 hemp,53 roses,54 algae55,56 and indeed all plant life on earth. Reviews of plant science literature indicate that boosting greenhouse carbon dioxide levels by just 300 parts per million (ppm) will increase plant growth by 30%.47
Even better, elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide can increase the nutrient value of food for humans,46,57-59 while decreasing its nutrient value for insects. By significantly lowering the radio of nitrogen to carbon in plants, nutrient availability for predatory insects is significantly limited. Furthermore, under increased concentrations of CO2, the production of natural defensive compounds by plants is increased and the growth and survival of pests are adversely affected.60,61
Better still, carbon dioxide enrichment reduces the water requirements of plants by enabling them to use water more efficiently;62 it makes them better able to survive extreme growing conditions like draught,63 high temperatures,64 and excess salinity;65 it makes them more resistant to bacterial and fungal infections;66 it suppresses invasive plant species;48 it increases the number of seeds a plant produces;67 and it also increases the annual life cycle of plants, extending the growing season.68
Once food crops have fully-ripened, packaging them in containers with added carbon dioxide can reduce their decay and significantly prolong shelf-life.69-71
The extraordinary disease resistance, longevity and myriad of other benefits imparted to animals, humans and plants inhabiting carbon dioxide-enriched environments have shown us the importance of carbon dioxide. And since organisms that don’t require oxygen still need carbon dioxide to survive, we can conclude that carbon dioxide is more fundamental to life than oxygen.72
A Closer Look…
- An experiment from 1980 incubated anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that don’t use oxygen) into jars containing a range of carbon dioxide concentrations. The study revealed that contrary to established teaching, “Small supplements of CO2 (0.25%) allowed good growth of the majority of anaerobes studied.” Furthermore, some anaerobes had a minimum requirement of at least 1% CO2 for survival and an anaerobe called B. melaninogenicus “needed an atmospheric content of 10–40% CO2 for optimal growth.”72
Many living creatures, from mole rats to bats to bees, even amphibians like frogs, which burrow in the mud to accumulate a surplus of carbon dioxide, inherently understand the essentiality of CO2 and as such have found ways to intensify their exposures to it. Humans, on the other hand, believe that carbon dioxide is an environmental waste gas and have actually altered their behavior to reduce the amount of it in their environment. (Who is smarter – man or frog?)
There’s one more thing that must be addressed in order to eliminate the phobia surrounding carbon dioxide.
It is the duty of every human being alive to question everything we are told by those who claim authority over us, especially when the solutions they advance involve us giving them $226 million more in taxes every year,74 or when we see the media calling us ‘genocidal mass murderers’ simply for doing so.73
Anytime the subject of climate change is discussed in the media, we are presented with the extreme view that elevated CO2 is moving humanity towards catastrophe and that all scientists agree on this “fact.”209,210 However, when we read the climate science ourselves, we find that not only is there no consensus among scientists, but there is little to no evidence suggesting any reason to be alarmed at all. An extensive review of 539 climate change studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals between 2004 and 2007 concluded, “Only one paper refers to ‘catastrophic’ climate change, but without offering evidence.”89
So while politicians and the media push their unscientific, alarmist perspectives about climate change onto the public in support of their own political and economic interests, scientists, who base their views on empirical evidence, take into account the large and growing body of research showing that carbon dioxide has little or nothing to do with the earth’s surface temperature.75-87 The surge of peer-reviewed studies, analysis and data error discoveries published in recent years have prompted Dr. Ian Wilson and many others to declare that the fear surrounding man-made global warming “bites the dust.”88
Rather than catastrophe, the rising levels of natural and man-made carbon dioxide in our environment208 are sparking a revolution of intensified plant growth and abundance that greens the earth and delivers everything needed by humans and all living creatures to thrive with unprecedented levels of health, intelligence, compassion and longevity.
Many people have claimed that baking soda is a ‘quack’ treatment with no anti-cancer effects – and if this is your opinion, the research on baking soda and cancer may surprise you.
Investigations using sodium bicarbonate to treat cancer cells in vitro are limited, yet promising; published in the World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences in 2014 by researchers from North Carolina, the study confirmed that sodium bicarbonate can trigger apoptosis in colon cancer cells.90
In 2006, Norwegian researchers discovered that an acidic tumor microenvironment promotes metastasis in mice bearing three different types of tumors.92 Since sodium bicarbonate mixed in drinking water and consumed orally can effectively raise the pH of tumors,97 researchers from the University of Arizona administered it to tumor-bearing mice to see if cancer metastasis could be prevented. Results confirmed that baking soda “increases tumor pH and inhibits spontaneous metastases” in mice with breast and prostate tumors.93
Dr. Robert J. Gillies and his team from the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute in Florida examined the relationship between tumor microenvironment pH and the growth and spread of cancer in vivo. Results were published in the journal Cancer Research in 2013 and found that oral administration of sodium bicarbonate inhibited the growth and spread of colon and breast tumors. “In every case… the regions of highest tumor invasion corresponded to areas of lowest pH. Tumor invasion did not occur into regions with normal or near-normal extracellular pH,” they wrote.94 In other words, an acidic tumor environment is essential for cancer metastasis and balancing out the pH using sodium bicarbonate can prevent it from occurring.
One of the mechanisms behind the anti-metastatic effect of sodium bicarbonate was discovered by scientists Ian Robey and Lance Nesbit from the University of Arizona in 2013. Their study found that sodium bicarbonate treatment reduced the number of circulating tumor cells in the blood of tumor-bearing mice to less than half. 95
Dr. Gillies and his team discovered another mechanism behind sodium bicarbonate’s anti-cancer effects in 2016. It is well established that excess acidity impedes immune system function166-168 and that neutralization of acidity with sodium bicarbonate can amplify the immune response.169,171 After administering sodium bicarbonate to tumor-bearing mice, the researchers observed an influx of immune cells into tumors, which prevented the growth of numerous tumor types.170
One shocking and incredibly rare fact about sodium bicarbonate is that oncologists actually administer it to cancer patients before, during and after chemotherapy and radiotherapy to protect them from the extreme toxicity.90 “If you want to see how fast a person can hit the floor during chemotherapy just forget to mix in the bicarbonate and get out your stopwatch!” exclaimed Dr. Mark Sircus. “Those who survive the deadly treatment known as chemotherapy were likely saved by the sodium bicarbonate, and not the deadly chemotherapy poison pumped into their bodies.”91
26 terminal cancer patients suffering from severe pain and side effects caused by failed chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments were administered sodium bicarbonate dissolved in DMSO intravenously by Vietnamese researchers in 2011. Results showed the treatment considerably eased the pain and discomfort of all patients.96
In 2008, Vernon Johnson was diagnosed with stage 4 prostate cancer that was so advanced it had already metastasized to his bones. Not wanting to subject himself to toxic cancer therapies, Vernon refused all treatments recommended by his doctor and followed the advice of his brother instead. “When Vernon was diagnosed with the disease, I told him to increase the pH in his body because any type of cancer cannot thrive in an alkaline environment,” recalled his brother Larry.
Vernon read that a mixture of baking soda and maple syrup was effective for raising pH, but since he didn’t have any in his kitchen at the time, he substituted it for molasses and began self-treatment.
After consuming the mixture multiple times a day for 11 days, Vernon received a medical examination from his doctor and the results showed his prostate and bone cancers had disappeared completely. Vernon’s success story made headlines in the California newspaper Valley News in 2009.98
Loredana was diagnosed with a breast tumor in 2010. “I took all the tests requested, and it turned out that I needed to get an operation,” she explained. Frightened by the prospect of having to undergo chemotherapy and radiotherapy following surgery, Loredana did some research and found that she had the option to receive sodium bicarbonate therapy following surgery instead. “This got me very interested,” exclaimed Loredana.
She found a surgeon willing to follow the sodium bicarbonate protocol of Italian doctor Tullio Simoncini and had her tumor surgically removed. Once the tumor was cut from her breast, the area was washed with sodium bicarbonate and she continued repeating the washes according to the protocol. One year and multiple checkups, ultrasounds and a mammogram later, she was completely free of cancer.99
In June of 2008, Canadian Rod Peterson was diagnosed with a tumor in his right kidney. Two months later, Rod had his kidney surgically removed and about 6 months post-surgery, cancer was found in his lungs. Rod’s oncologist explained that he could undergo surgery, chemotherapy or radiation, but none would really work with the type of cancer he had. “Basically, he told me to go home and enjoy the rest of my life. He gave me a card for the psychologist if I needed him and I left the office. I was fairly numb, so to speak.”
Not ready to leave his family behind, Rod started doing some research and found the work of Dr. Tullio Simoncini. After finding his theories convincing, Rod flew to Rome to talk with the doctor in person. Impressed with the meeting and excited to begin, Rod underwent treatment for 6 weeks in August of 2009. “After the treatment I was curious. I came back, I had my CT Scans, and you could clearly see, from past scans where the tumors kept constantly growing, all of a sudden they had shrank, some cases in half. Of course it was very exciting. My oncologist was ecstatic. He started to say ‘this only happens with 1% of the population. If this continues, we’re going to have to do a write-up on you.’”
Wanting to see his health improve even more, Rod returned for further treatments with Dr. Simoncini in January of 2010. “I went back for treatment with Simoncini. I had a CT Scan to followup with my oncologist, and after two weeks of a second cycle, my tumors again had shrunk in half. I continued again with another two weeks of treatment and came back to Canada. In the CT Scan I got when I returned, the tumors were gone; all there was left was scar tissue.” After just three cycles of sodium bicarbonate therapy, doctors confirmed Rod Peterson no longer had cancer. “Because of Dr. Tullio Simoncini I have a second chance at life, and I believe everybody should have that. By meeting Dr. Simoncini, I’m still here today and I am very thankful. I thank God for that.”100
- Sodium bicarbonate cures metabolic acidosis101
- Sodium bicarbonate inhibits bacterial growth102,104,105
- Sodium bicarbonate prevents growth of spoilage microbes on vegetables106
- Sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide have synergistic antimicrobial effects107
- Sodium bicarbonate “is central to the treatment of many poisonings”108,114,115
- Sodium bicarbonate prevents damage caused by herbicide glyphosate,109 paraquat,111 amitriptyline,159 yew berry poisoning112 and uranium136
- Sodium bicarbonate (topically) reduces redness caused by jellyfish sting110
- Sodium bicarbonate effectively treats near-fatal flecainide overdose113
- Sodium bicarbonate inhibits calcivirus103
- Sodium bicarbonate and calcium gluconate solution effective for treating osteoarthritis116
- Sodium bicarbonate prevents bone demineralization caused by acidosis117
- Sodium bicarbonate corrects mental status abnormalities (i.e. confusion, slurred speech) caused by acidosis118
Chronic Kidney Disease:
- Sodium bicarbonate improves nutritional status and dramatically slows progression of CKD119,120
- Sodium bicarbonate preserves kidney function in patients with CKD117
- Sodium bicarbonate resolves abnormal heart rate in patients with CKD121
- Sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse restores function of taste buds and relieves other symptoms of CKD122
- Sodium bicarbonate toothpaste provides a ‘clean mouth feel,’123 whitens teeth,124 enhances plaque removal,126,127 reduces bleeding128 and provides “statistically significant improvements in gingival health”128
- Sodium bicarbonate mouthwash significantly reduces mineral loss from tooth enamel125,129-132
- Sodium bicarbonate chewing gum significantly removes dental plaque and reduces gingivitis133-135
- Sodium bicarbonate eliminates uranium from the body136
- Bicarbonate-rich mineral water increases insulin sensitivity in humans138
- Sodium bicarbonate treats diabetic acidosis in children139
- Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes high aluminum concentrations in water141
- Sodium bicarbonate removes 92% of uranium from contaminated soil samples142
- Sodium bicarbonate removes chemical pollutant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from waterways140
- “Mixed with sodium bicarbonate, one metric ton of PCB-tainted soil can be cleansed per hour in a rotary reactor.”143
- Sodium bicarbonate increases back squat repetitions to failure144
- Sodium bicarbonate improves 200m swimming time145
- Sodium bicarbonate significantly increases punches landed during 4 rounds of boxing146
- Sodium bicarbonate improves cycling performance during repeated sprints147,148
- Sodium bicarbonate fed to black belly barbados lambs for 10 days significantly improves meat quality149
- Sodium bicarbonate corrects acidosis and improves hydration in diarrheal calves150
- Sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens153
- Sodium bicarbonate promotes growth, photosynthesis and biochemical composition of marine algae151,152
- Sodium bicarbonate prevents excessive inflammation and accelerates healing process154
- Bicarbonate-calcium-magnesium water improves skin regeneration155
- Sodium bicarbonate restores abnormal heart rate caused by crack cocaine,156,157 bupropion160 and diphenhydramine161
- Sodium bicarbonate eliminates seizures and heart abnormalities caused by antidepressant overdose162,163
- Carbonated water with a meal reduces risk of cardiovascular disease164,165
- Sodium bicarbonate enhances immune system169
- Sodium bicarbonate promotes antitumor immunity170,171
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces inflammation154,174
- Sodium bicarbonate significantly increases lifespan of mice172
- Sodium bicarbonate stimulates oxidative metabolism171
- Sodium bicarbonate substantially decreases tissue calcification172
- Sodium bicarbonate and albumin enhance weight loss effects of anti-obesity herb fenugreek173
- Sodium bicarbonate prevents painful ulceration of the mouth caused by radiotherapy174
- Bicarbonate “plays critically important roles during virtually the entire process of reproduction in mammals”175
- Sodium bicarbonate effective for simulating embryonic environment during in vitro fertilization176
- Sodium bicarbonate improves growth of children202
- Sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid solution (topically) renews natural immune barrier of skin177
- Sodium bicarbonate baths dramatically improve psoriasis in humans178,179
- Sodium bicarbonate improves sleep quality180
- Sodium bicarbonate improves thyroid function181
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces free radicals182,183
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha184,185
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces interleukin-1beta186,187
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces interleukin-6186,188
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces interleukin-8187,189
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces nuclear factor kappa-b189,190
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces cortisol191
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces prolactin192,193
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces nitric oxide194,195
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces lactic acid196,197
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces prostaglandins198,199
- Sodium bicarbonate reduces histamine200
- Sodium bicarbonate softens earwax and aids in its removal201
- Sodium bicarbonate dissolves uric acid stones203,204 and bladder stones205
- Sodium bicarbonate effective for treating cystic fibrosis206
- Sodium bicarbonate decreases mortality in patients treated for acute respiratory failure207
- Sodium bicarbonate increases return of spontaneous circulation during CPR158
Considering all the benefits of using sodium bicarbonate therapeutically, and especially when compared to orthodox cancer treatments, side effects are few and exceptionally minor.
Some participants in exercise performance-related studies reported upset stomachs and/or diarrhea at doses of 300mg/kg, which is about 22.5 grams of sodium bicarbonate for a 75kg (165lb) man or woman. Athletes loading up on baking soda for performance enhancement have been able to resolve this issue by consuming sodium bicarbonate in multiple, split-doses.
Vernon Johnson cured himself of metastasized prostate cancer using sodium bicarbonate and the only side effects he experienced were the occasional nausea, diarrhea and weakness. All in all, the treatment consisted of less than half a box of sodium bicarbonate, costing less than $1, and all of his symptoms went away after the treatment ended – not bad for completely eliminating his cancer.
To give people enough confidence to begin self-treatment with baking soda if they choose, it’s useful to know the exact protocol used by Vernon Johnson to cure himself of cancer. Vernon’s protocol involved a mixture of baking soda, molasses and water over the course of 11 days. Here’s how he did it:
Days 1-4: Vernon began by consuming 1 cup of water containing 1 teaspoon of baking soda and 1 teaspoon of black strap molasses. Vernon consumed this mixture once daily for the first four days. After noting that he felt fine and his pH was 7.0 (saliva) and 7.5 (urine), he decided to increase his dose.
Day 5: On day five, Vernon doubled his dose and began drinking the same solution twice per day. After reading that cancer cells become dormant at a pH of 7 and dead at a pH of 8.0-8.5, his goal was to achieve a saliva and urine pH between 8.0-8.5 and hold it for four or five days. He used pH test strips to measure his pH and emphasized the importance of taking both saliva and urine pH into consideration, since saliva pH can at times be a poor indicator of blood pH.
Day 6: He continued taking two daily doses of his solution and on day six, his pH averaged out to be 7.25. On this day he felt slightly nauseous and his stool had a yellowish tinge.
Day 7: Vernon took 3 teaspoons of baking soda in water with 1 teaspoon of molasses for his first dose. For his second dose he went back down to the 2 teaspoons of baking soda with molasses in water.
Day 8: Hoping to elevate his pH even more, Vernon took two teaspoons of baking soda in water and molasses three times over the course of day 8.
Day 9: He noticed a little diarrhea and felt a bit weak on day 9, but said he “felt oxygen euphoria throughout the day. Like my body was breathing pure oxygen.”
Day 10: Vernon had a persistent headache at this point and noticed body sweats at night. He took 4 pH readings over the course of the day and they were all in the mid 8’s. He then cut back his dose on this day to a 2 teaspoon sodium bicarbonate solution in molasses and water, twice daily.
Day 11: On the day before returning to his doctor to assess the condition of his cancerous bones, Vernon experienced diarrhea that was slightly yellow. He reduced his dose to 1.5 teaspoons of the baking soda, molasses and water solution and consumed it twice.
“So there you have it. That was my last day before the scan,” said Vernon, before emphasizing the importance of consuming baking soda two hours before or two hours after a meal to maintain the stomach acidity necessary for digestion.91
Thank you for reading this chapter on sodum bicarbonate from my book Cancer Cured. If you found this article helpful please support my work by buying my book through the link below.
- To buy my book Cancer Cured click here.
- To buy a red light therapy device at a discount click here.
- For other amazing products and resources click here.
- Scialla JJ, Appel LJ, Astor BC, et al. Estimated net endogenous acid production and serum bicarbonate in African Americans with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(7):1526-32.
- Semenza GL, Artemov D, Bedi A, et al. ‘The metabolism of tumours’: 70 years later. Novartis Found Symp. 2001;240:251-60.
- Gogvadze V, Orrenius S, Zhivotovsky B. Mitochondria in cancer cells: what is so special about them?. Trends Cell Biol. 2008;18(4):165-73.
- Boag JM, Beesley AH, Firth MJ, et al. Altered glucose metabolism in childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Leukemia. 2006;20(10):1731-7.
- Seyfried TN, Mukherjee P. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer: review and hypothesis. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005;2:30.
- Ristow M. Oxidative metabolism in cancer growth. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9(4):339-45.
- Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis?. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4(11):891-9.
- Tannock IF, Rotin D. Acid pH in tumors and its potential for therapeutic exploitation. Cancer Res. 1989;49(16):4373-84.
- Dhup S, Dadhich RK, Porporato PE, Sonveaux P. Multiple biological activities of lactic acid in cancer: influences on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(10):1319-30.
- Goto K. A study of the acidosis, blood urea, and plasma chlorides in uranium nephritis in the dog, and of the protective action of sodium bicarbonate. J Exp Med. 1917;25(5):693-719.
- Smith ES, Omerbašić D, Lechner SG, Anirudhan G, Lapatsina L, Lewin GR. The molecular basis of acid insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat. Science. 2011;334(6062):1557-60.
- Edrey YH, Park TJ, Kang H, Biney A, Buffenstein R. Endocrine function and neurobiology of the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat. Exp Gerontol. 2011;46(2-3):116-23.
- Liang S, Mele J, Wu Y, Buffenstein R, Hornsby PJ. Resistance to experimental tumorigenesis in cells of a long-lived mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). Aging Cell. 2010;9(4):626-35.
- Asdell SA, Doornenbal H, Joshi SR, Sperling GA. The effects of sex steroid hormones upon longevity in rats. J Reprod Fertil. 1967;14(1):113-20.
- Suter P, Luetkemeier H, Zakova N, Christen P, Sachsse K, Hess R. Lifespan studies on male and female mice and rats under SPF-laboratory conditions. Arch Toxicol Suppl. 1979;(2):403-7.
- Buffenstein R. The naked mole-rat: a new long-living model for human aging research. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(11):1369-77.
- O’connor TP, Lee A, Jarvis JU, Buffenstein R. Prolonged longevity in naked mole-rats: age-related changes in metabolism, body composition and gastrointestinal function. Comp Biochem Physiol, Part A Mol Integr Physiol. 2002;133(3):835-42.
- Csiszar A, Labinskyy N, Orosz Z, Xiangmin Z, Buffenstein R, Ungvari Z. Vascular aging in the longest-living rodent, the naked mole rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293(2):H919-27.
- Edrey YH, Hanes M, Pinto M, Mele J, Buffenstein R. Successful aging and sustained good health in the naked mole rat: a long-lived mammalian model for biogerontology and biomedical research. ILAR J. 2011;52(1):41-53.
- Lewis KN, Mele J, Hornsby PJ, Buffenstein R. Stress resistance in the naked mole-rat: the bare essentials – a mini-review. Gerontology. 2012;58(5):453-62.
- Kim EB, Fang X, Fushan AA, et al. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat. Nature. 2011;479(7372):223-7.
- Lewis KN, Andziak B, Yang T, Buffenstein R. The naked mole-rat response to oxidative stress: just deal with it. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;19(12):1388-99.
- Peat R. Protective CO2 and aging. [Online]. Available: http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/co2.shtml [February 15, 2017].
- Shams I, Avivi A, Nevo E. Oxygen and carbon dioxide fluctuations in burrows of subterranean blind mole rats indicate tolerance to hypoxic-hypercapnic stresses. Comp Biochem Physiol, Part A Mol Integr Physiol. 2005;142(3):376-82.
- Berkovits R, Boffa N, Deluca V. The effects of hypercapnic hypoxia on naked mole rat activity levels, memory, and social interaction. 2010. Available: https://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/newyorkcityonthebrain/files/2010/12/NMR-Poster.pdf [February 15, 2017].
- Bahreini R, Currie RW. The Potential of Bee-Generated Carbon Dioxide for Control of Varroa Mite (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Indoor Overwintering Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies. J Econ Entomol. 2015;108(5):2153-67.
- Remolina SC, Hughes KA. Evolution and mechanisms of long life and high fertility in queen honey bees. Age (Dordr). 2008;30(2-3):177-85.
- Podlutsky AJ, Khritankov AM, Ovodov ND, Austad SN. A new field record for bat longevity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(11):1366-8.
- Howarth FG, Stone FD. 1990. Elevated carbon dioxide levels in Bayliss Cave, Australia: implications for the evolution of obligate cave species. Pac Sci 44(3): 207-218.
- Faeh D, Moser A, Panczak R, et al. Independent at heart: persistent association of altitude with ischaemic heart disease mortality after consideration of climate, topography and built environment. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(8):798-806.
- Mortimer EA, Monson RR, Macmahon B. Reduction in mortality from coronary heart disease in men residing at high altitude. N Engl J Med. 1977;296(11):581-5.
- Voors AW, Johnson WD. Altitude and arteriosclerotic heart disease mortality in white residents of 99 of the 100 largest cities in the United States. J Chronic Dis. 1979;32(1-2):157-62.
- Burtscher M. Effects of living at higher altitudes on mortality: a narrative review. Aging Dis. 2014;5(4):274-80.
- Faeh D, Gutzwiller F, Bopp M. Lower mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke at higher altitudes in Switzerland. Circulation. 2009;120(6):495-501.
- Simeonov KP, Himmelstein DS. Lung cancer incidence decreases with elevation: evidence for oxygen as an inhaled carcinogen. PeerJ. 2015;3:e705.
- Youk AO, Buchanich JM, Fryzek J, Cunningham M, Marsh GM. An ecological study of cancer mortality rates in high altitude counties of the United States. High Alt Med Biol. 2012;13(2):98-104.
- Amsel J, Waterbor JW, Oler J, Rosenwaike I, Marshall K. Relationship of site-specific cancer mortality rates to altitude. Carcinogenesis. 1982;3(5):461-5.
- Weinberg CR, Brown KG, Hoel DG. Altitude, radiation, and mortality from cancer and heart disease. Radiat Res. 1987;112(2):381-90.
- Hart J. Cancer mortality in six lowest versus six highest elevation jurisdictions in the u.s. Dose Response. 2010;9(1):50-8.
- Klocke RA. Mechanism and kinetics of the Haldane effect in human erythrocytes. J Appl Physiol. 1973;35(5):673-81.
- Tripp KE, Peet MM, Pharr DM, Willits DH, Nelson PV. CO(2)-Enhanced Yield and Foliar Deformation among Tomato Genotypes in Elevated CO(2) Environments. Plant Physiol. 1991;96(3):713-9.
- Hinkleton PR, Joliffe PA. Effects of greenhouse co2 enrichment on the yield and photosynthetic physiology of tomato plants. Can J. Plant Sci. 1977;58:801-817.
- Srinivasa rao M, Manimanjari D, Vanaja M, et al. Impact of elevated CO₂ on tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on peanut, Arachis hypogea. J Insect Sci. 2012;12:103.
- Cheng W, Sakai H, Yagi K, Hasegawa T. Interactions of elevated [CO2] and night temperature on rice growth and yield. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; vol.149, issue 1:51-58.
- Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ. Effect of CO(2) enrichment on synthesis of some primary and secondary metabolites in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(2):1101-14.
- Becker C, Kläring HP. CO₂ enrichment can produce high red leaf lettuce yield while increasing most flavonoid glycoside and some caffeic acid derivative concentrations. Food Chem. 2016;199:736-45.
- Idso SB, Kimball BA, Anderson MG, Mauney JR. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on plant growth: the interactive role of air temperature. Ag Eco and Envi. 1987; vol 20, issue 1:1-10.
- Zelikova TJ, Blumenthal DM, Williams DG, et al. Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 enhances plant community stability by suppressing dominant plant species in a mixed-grass prairie. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(43):15456-61.
- Temperton VM, Grayston SJ, Jackson G, Barton CV, Millard P, Jarvis PG. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on growth and nitrogen fixation in Alnus glutinosa in a long-term field experiment. Tree Physiol. 2003;23(15):1051-9.
- Jach EM, Ceulemans R. Effects of elevated atmospheric co2 on growth and crown structure of scots pine (pinus sylvestris) seedlings after two years of exposure in the field. Tree Physiol. 1999;19(45):289-300.
- Bond WJ, Midgley GF. Carbon dioxide and the uneasy interactions of trees and savannah grasses. Philos Trans R Soc Lond, B, Biol Sci. 2012;367(1588):601-12.
- Campbell, C. D., Sage, R. F., Kocacinar, F. and Way, D. A. (2005), Estimation of the whole-plant CO2 compensation point of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Global Change Biology, 11: 1956–1967.
- Escondido N. (2014). Cultivation clinic: co2 can increase yields 40%. High Times. [Online]. Available: http://hightimes.com/grow/cultivation-clinic-co2-can-increase-yields-40 [February 15, 2017].
- Holley WD, Goldsberry KL. Carbon dioxide increases growth of greenhouse roses. Colorado State University. 1961. Available: https://hortscans.ces.ncsu.edu/uploads/c/a/carbon_d_534d6d760c4ed.pdf [February 15, 2017].
- Singh SP, Singh P. Effect of CO2 concentration on algal growth: a review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews. 2014; 38:172-179.
- Roberts DA, De nys R, Paul NA. The effect of CO2 on algal growth in industrial waste water for bioenergy and bioremediation applications. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(11):e81631.
- Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A. Elevated carbon dioxide increases contents of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities in Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) varieties. Molecules. 2010;15(11):7907-22.
- Stiling, P. and Cornelissen, T. How does elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) affect plant–herbivore interactions? A field experiment and meta-analysis of CO2-mediated changes on plant chemistry and herbivore performance. Global Change Biology, 13: 1823–1842.
- Penuelas J, Estiarte M, Kimball BA, Idso SB, Pinter jr PJ, Wall GW, Garcia RL, Hansaker DJ, LaMorte RL, Hendrix DL. Variety of responses of plant phenolic concentration to CO2 enrichment. J Exper Bot. 1996;vol. 47, 302: 1463-1467.
- Papitchaya T, Chen WT, Sripontan Y, Hwang SY. Elevated CO2 concentration promotes tomato plant growth but impairs Spodoptera litura performance. J zoo sci. 2015.
- Coviella CE, Stipanovic RD, Trumble JT. Plant allocation to defensive compounds: interactions between elevated CO(2) and nitrogen in transgenic cotton plants. J Exp Bot. 2002;53(367):323-31.
- Prior SA, Runion GB, Marble SC, Rogers HH, Gilliam CH, Torbert HA. A review of elevated atmospheric CO@ effects on plant growth and water relations: implications for horticulture. Hortscience. 2011;46(2).
- Abdelgawad H, Farfan-vignolo ER, De vos D, Asard H. Elevated CO₂ mitigates drought and temperature-induced oxidative stress differently in grasses and legumes. Plant Sci. 2015;231:1-10.
- Idso SB, Allen SG, Anderson MG, Kimball BA. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment enhances survival of Azolla at high temperatures. Env & Exp Bot. 1989; 29(3):337-341.
- Abdelgawad H, Zinta G, Beemster GT, Janssens IA, Asard H. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:556.
- Mhamdi A, Noctor G. High CO2 Primes Plant Biotic Stress Defences through Redox-Linked Pathways. Plant Physiol. 2016;172(2):929-942.
- Hartwell jr AL, Baker JT, Boote KJ. The CO2 fertilization effects: higher carbohydrate production and retention as biomass and seed yield. Available: http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5183e/w5183e06.htm [February 15, 2017].
- Reyes-fox M, Steltzer H, Trlica MJ, et al. Elevated CO2 further lengthens growing season under warming conditions. Nature. 2014;510(7504):259-62.
- Choi HJ, Bae YS, Lee JS, Park MH, Kim GJ. Effects of carbon dioxide treatment and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of long distance transporting “maehyang” strawberries. Ag Sci. 2016; 7:813-821.
- Ramayya N, Niranjan K, Duncan E. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on quality of ‘Alphonso’ Mangoes. J Food Sci Technol. 2012;49(6):721-8.
- Almenar E, Hernández-muñoz P, Lagarón JM, Catalá R, Gavara R. Controlled atmosphere storage of wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(1):86-91.
- Reilly S. The carbon dioxide requirements of anaerobic bacteria. J Med Microbiol. 1980;13(4):573-9.
- Barrett, J. CNN host links climate ‘deniers’ to genocidal mass murderers. Daily Wire. [Online]. Available: http://www.dailywire.com/news/11152/cnn-correspondent-links-climate-deniers-genocidal-james-barrett [February 15, 2017].
- The Canadian Free Press. (2017). Carbon tax not neutral. [Online]. Available: http://www.castanet.net/news/BC/189019/Carbon-tax-not-neutral [February 15, 2017].
- Essex C, McKitrick R, Andresen B. Does a global temperature exist? J. Non-equilibrium Thermo. 2006.
- Gray, L. J., et al. (2010), Solar influences on climate, Geophys. 48, RG4001.
- Camp, C. D., and K. Tung (2007), Surface warming by the solar cycle as revealed by the composite mean difference projection, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L14703.
- Schwartz SE. Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of earth’s climate system. J. Geo Res. 2007.
- Tech-know-group. Dozens of unpublished scientific papers open for peer review.
- Lu QB. Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change. Int. J. Mod. Phys. 2013;27:1350073.
- Carter RM. Public misperceptions of human-caused climate change: the role of the media. 2006 testimony before the committee on Environment and Public Works. Available: https://www.epw.senate.gov/109th/Carter_Testimony.pdf [February 15, 2017].
- Tsonis, A. A., Swanson, and S. Kravtsov (2007), A new dynamical mechanism for major climate shifts, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L13705.
- Spencer RW. Satellite and climate model evidence against substantial manmade climate change (supercedes “has the climate sensitivity holy grail been found?”) 2008.
- Spencer RW. Global warming as a natural response to cloud changes associated with the pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). 2008.
- Mackey R. Rhodes fairbridge and the idea that the solar system regulates the earth’s climate. J. Ctl Res. 2007;50:955-968.
- Shan LZ, Xian S. Multi-scale analysis of global temperature changes and trend of a drop in temperature in the next 20 years. Atmos. Phys. 2007; 95:115.
- Manuel OK. Earth’s heat source – the sun. Energy & Environment. 2009; 20:131-144.
- Caruba, A. (2007). The year the global warming hoax died. Canada Free Press. [Online]. Available: http://canadafreepress.com/2007/caruba090307.htm [February 15, 2017].
- Schulte M-K. Scientific consensus on climate change? Energy & Environment. 2008; 19(2).
- Al-Achi A, Meduri RT. An in vitro study of modulatory effects of sodium bicarbonate on human colon adenocarcinoma cell (caco-2). World J. Phar. & Phar. Sci. 2014;3(3):228-244.
- Sircus, M. 2014. Sodium Bicarbonate: Nature’s Unique First Aid Remedy. Square One. 224 pps.
- Rofstad EK, Mathiesen B, Kindem K, Galappathi K. Acidic extracellular pH promotes experimental metastasis of human melanoma cells in athymic nude mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66(13):6699-707.
- Robey IF, Baggett BK, Kirkpatrick ND, et al. Bicarbonate increases tumor pH and inhibits spontaneous metastases. Cancer Res. 2009;69(6):2260-8.
- Estrella V, Chen T, Lloyd M, et al. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion. Cancer Res. 2013;73(5):1524-35.
- Robey IF, Nesbit LA. Investigating mechanisms of alkalinization for reducing primary breast tumor invasion. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:485196.
- Hoang BX, Tran DM, Tran HQ, et al. Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2011;25(1):19-24.
- Raghunand N, He X, Van sluis R, et al. Enhancement of chemotherapy by manipulation of tumour pH. Br J Cancer. 1999;80(7):1005-11.
- Fassa, P. (2009). Bicarbonate of soda used to cure stage four prostate cancer. Natural News. [Online]. Available: http://www.naturalnews.com/027481_prostate_cancer_baking_soda.html [February 15, 2017].
- seoleoINT. (2012). Breast cancer treatment with sodium bicarbonate. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7fAK-56WCDg [February 15, 2017].
- Peterson R. seoleoINT. (2012). Dr. Simoncini – patient kidney cancer RCC. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGa3zhquQEk [February 15, 2017].
- Brunkhorst R. [Mineral and bone disorder in chronic kidney disease : Critical appraisal of pharmacotherapy]. Internist (Berl). 2014;55(3):334-9.
- Wolinsky LE, Lott T. Effects of the inorganic salts sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and magnesium sulfate upon the growth and motility of Treponema vincentii. J Periodontol. 1986;57(3):172-5.
- Malik YS, Goyal SM. Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Int J Food Microbiol. 2006;109(1-2):160-3.
- Newbrun E. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice. Compend Contin Educ Dent Suppl. 1997;18(21):S2-7.
- Drake DR, Vargas K, Cardenzana A, Srikantha R. Enhanced bactericidal activity of Arm and Hammer Dental Care. Am J Dent. 1995;8(6):308-12.
- Pinto L, Ippolito A, Baruzzi F. Control of spoiler Pseudomonas spp. on fresh cut vegetables by neutral electrolyzed water. Food Microbiol. 2015;50:102-8.
- Miyasaki KT, Genco RJ, Wilson ME. Antimicrobial properties of hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate individually and in combination against selected oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria. J Dent Res. 1986;65(9):1142-8.
- Neavyn MJ, Boyer EW, Bird SB, Babu KM. Sodium acetate as a replacement for sodium bicarbonate in medical toxicology: a review. J Med Toxicol. 2013;9(3):250-4.
- Bando H, Murao Y, Aoyagi U, Hirakawa A, Iwase M, Nakatani T. [Extreme hyperkalemia in a patient with a new glyphosate potassium herbicide poisoning: report of a case]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2010;23(3):246-9.
- Declerck MP, Bailey Y, Craig D, et al. Efficacy of Topical Treatments for Chrysaora chinensis Species: A Human Model in Comparison with an In Vitro Model. Wilderness Environ Med. 2016;27(1):25-38.
- Ren A, Ren S, Jian X, Zhang Q. [The prevention and therapeutics effect of sodium bicarbonate with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection on the patients with paraquat poisoning and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2015;33(9):693-4.
- Pierog J, Kane B, Kane K, Donovan JW. Management of isolated yew berry toxicity with sodium bicarbonate: a case report in treatment efficacy. J Med Toxicol. 2009;5(2):84-9.
- Jang DH, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS. A case of near-fatal flecainide overdose in a neonate successfully treated with sodium bicarbonate. J Emerg Med. 2013;44(4):781-3.
- Zhao B, Yang L, Xiao L, et al. [The influence of sodium bicarbonate combined with ulinastatin on cholinesterase activity for patients with acute phoxim pesticide poisoning]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2016;34(1):53-5.
- Stefanovic D, Antonijevic B, Bokonjic D, Stojiljkovic MP, Milovanovic ZA, Nedeljkovic M. Effect of sodium bicarbonate in rats acutely poisoned with dichlorvos. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;98(2):173-80.
- García-padilla S, Duarte-vázquez MA, Gonzalez-romero KE, Caamaño Mdel C, Rosado JL. Effectiveness of intra-articular injections of sodium bicarbonate and calcium gluconate in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015;16:114.
- Raphael KL. Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Metabolic Acidosis in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;67(4):696-702.
- Bakhru MR, Kumar A, Aneja A. A 58-year-old woman with mental status changes. Cleve Clin J Med. 2007;74(6):457-62.
- De brito-ashurst I, Varagunam M, Raftery MJ, Yaqoob MM. Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(9):2075-84.
- Jeong J, Kwon SK, Kim HY. Effect of bicarbonate supplementation on renal function and nutritional indices in predialysis advanced chronic kidney disease. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2014;12(2):80-7.
- Roumelioti ME, Ranpuria R, Hall M, et al. Abnormal nocturnal heart rate variability response among chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients during wakefulness and sleep. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25(11):3733-41.
- Manley KJ. Will mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodiumbicarbonate or citric acid improve upper gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease. Nephrology (Carlton). 2017;22(3):213-219.
- Ash A, Wilde PJ, Bradshaw DJ, King SP, Pratten JR. Structural modifications of the salivary conditioning film upon exposure to sodium bicarbonate: implications for oral lubrication and mouthfeel. Soft Matter. 2016;12(10):2794-801.
- Ghassemi A, Hooper W, Vorwerk L, Domke T, Desciscio P, Nathoo S. Effectiveness of a new dentifrice with baking soda and peroxide in removing extrinsic stain and whitening teeth. J Clin Dent. 2012;23(3):86-91.
- Charig A, Winston A, Flickinger M. Enamel mineralization by calcium-containing-bicarbonate toothpastes: assessment by various techniques. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2004;25(9 Suppl 1):14-24.
- Putt MS, Milleman KR, Ghassemi A, et al. Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies. J Clin Dent. 2008;19(4):111-9.
- Ghassemi A, Vorwerk LM, Hooper WJ, Putt MS, Milleman KR. A four-week clinical study to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of a baking soda dentifrice and an antimicrobial dentifrice in reducing plaque. J Clin Dent. 2008;19(4):120-6.
- Lomax A, Patel S, Wang N, Kakar K, Kakar A, Bosma ML. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste on gingivitis. Int J Dent Hyg. 2016.
- Messias DC, Turssi CP, Hara AT, Serra MC. Sodium bicarbonate solution as an anti-erosive agent against simulated endogenous erosion. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118(4):385-8.
- Kashket S, Yaskell T. Effects of a high-bicarbonate dentifrice on intraoral demineralization. Compend Contin Educ Dent Suppl. 1997;18(21):S11-6.
- Turssi CP, Vianna LM, Hara AT, Do amaral FL, França FM, Basting RT. Counteractive effect of antacid suspensions on intrinsic dental erosion. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012;120(4):349-52.
- Alves Mdo S, Mantilla TF, Bridi EC, et al. Rinsing with antacid suspension reduces hydrochloric acid-induced erosion. Arch Oral Biol. 2016;61:66-70.
- Kleber CJ, Putt MS, Milleman JL, Davidson KR, Proskin HM. An evaluation of sodium bicarbonate chewing gum in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis in conjunction with regular toothbrushing. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001;22(7A):4-12.
- Kleber CJ, Davidson KR, Rhoades ML. An evaluation of sodium bicarbonate chewing gum as a supplement to toothbrushing for removal of dental plaque from children’s teeth. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001;22(7A):36-42.
- Sharma NC, Galustians JH, Qaqish JG. An evaluation of a commercial chewing gum in combination with normal toothbrushing for reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001;22(7A):13-7.
- Ohmachi Y, Imamura T, Ikeda M, et al. Sodium bicarbonate protects uranium-induced acute nephrotoxicity through uranium-decorporation by urinary alkalinization in rats. J Toxicol Pathol. 2015;28(2):65-71.
- Larson J, Park TJ. Extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat brain. Neuroreport. 2009;20(18):1634-7.
- Schoppen S, Sánchez-muniz FJ, Pérez-granados M, et al. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women?. Nutr Hosp. 2007;22(5):538-44.
- Reddy CM, Orti E. Insulin and sodium bicarbonate treatment in diabetic ketoacidosis in children. J Natl Med Assoc. 1977;69(5):355-7.
- Yan T, Lapara TM, Novak PJ. The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures. Environ Microbiol. 2006;8(7):1288-98.
- Neal C, Rowland P, Neal M, et al. Aluminium in UK rivers: a need for integrated research related to kinetic factors, colloidal transport, carbon and habitat. J Environ Monit. 2011;13(8):2153-64.
- Phillips, E.J.P., Landa, E.R. & Lovley, D.R. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction. Journal of Industrial Microbiology (1995) 14: 203.
- Popular Science. Recipe for PCB destruction: Add baking soda. August 1993;25.
- Duncan MJ, Weldon A, Price MJ. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(5):1358-66.
- Lindh AM, Peyrebrune MC, Ingham SA, Bailey DM, Folland JP. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29(6):519-23.
- Siegler JC, Hirscher K. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):103-8.
- Miller P, Robinson AL, Sparks SA, Bridge CA, Bentley DJ, Mcnaughton LR. The Effects of Novel Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate on Repeated Sprint Ability. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(2):561-8.
- Egger F, Meyer T, Such U, Hecksteden A. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Endurance Performance in Cyclists: A Double-Blind, Randomized Cross-Over Trial. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(12):e114729.
- Jallow DB, Hsia LC. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets at different ambient temperature levels. Asian-australas J Anim Sci. 2014;27(8):1098-103.
- Booth AJ, Naylor JM. Correction of metabolic acidosis in diarrheal calves by oral administration of electrolyte solutions with or without bicarbonate. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1987;191(1):62-8.
- Zhou W, Sui Z, Wang J, et al. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Photosyn Res. 2016;128(3):259-70.
- Sarat chandra T, Deepak RS, Maneesh kumar M, et al. Evaluation of indigenous fresh water microalga Scenedesmus obtusus for feed and fuel applications: Effect of carbon dioxide, light and nutrient sources on growth and biochemical characteristics. Bioresour Technol. 2016;207:430-9.
- Jiang MJ, Zhao JP, Jiao HC, Wang XJ, Zhang Q, Lin H. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production. Br Poult Sci. 2015;56(6):740-7.
- Yuan Z, Zhao J, Chen Y, Yang Z, Cui W, Zheng Q. Regulating inflammation using acid-responsive electrospun fibrous scaffolds for skin scarless healing. Mediators Inflamm. 2014;2014:858045.
- Faga A, Nicoletti G, Gregotti C, Finotti V, Nitto A, Gioglio L. Effects of thermal water on skin regeneration. Int J Mol Med. 2012;29(5):732-40.
- Erzouki HK, Baum I, Goldberg SR, Schindler CW. Comparison of the effects of cocaine and its metabolites on cardiovascular function in anesthetized rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1993;22(4):557-63.
- Miranda CH, Pazin-filho A. Crack cocaine-induced cardiac conduction abnormalities are reversed by sodium bicarbonate infusion. Case Rep Med. 2013;2013:396401.
- Kim J, Kim K, Park J, et al. Sodium bicarbonate administration during ongoing resuscitation is associated with increased return of spontaneous circulation. Am J Emerg Med. 2016;34(2):225-9.
- Paksu MS, Zengin H, Ilkaya F, et al. Can empirical hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate treatment prevent the development of cardiotoxicity during serious amitriptyline poisoning? Experimental research. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2015;26(3):134-9.
- Franco V. Wide complex tachycardia after bupropion overdose. Am J Emerg Med. 2015;33(10):1540.e3-5.
- Jang DH, Manini AF, Trueger NS, et al. Status epilepticus and wide-complex tachycardia secondary to diphenhydramine overdose. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48(9):945-8.
- Hodes D. Sodium bicarbonate and hyperventilation in treating an infant with severe overdose of tricyclic antidepressant. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1984;288(6433):1800-1.
- Clement A, Raney JJ, Wasserman GS, Lowry JA. Chronic amitriptyline overdose in a child. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012;50(5):431-4.
- Toxqui L, Pérez-granados AM, Blanco-rojo R, Vaquero MP. A sodium-bicarbonated mineral water reduces gallbladder emptying and postprandial lipaemia: a randomised four-way crossover study. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51(5):607-14.
- Pérez-granados AM, Navas-carretero S, Schoppen S, Vaquero MP. Reduction in cardiovascular risk by sodium-bicarbonated mineral water in moderately hypercholesterolemic young adults. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21(10):948-53.
- Riemann A, Wußling H, Loppnow H, Fu H, Reime S, Thews O. Acidosis differently modulates the inflammatory program in monocytes and macrophages. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862(1):72-81.
- Langfelder A, Okonji E, Deca D, Wei WC, Glitsch MD. Extracellular acidosis impairs P2Y receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling and migration of microglia. Cell Calcium. 2015;57(4):247-56.
- Shields EJ, Lam CJ, Cox AR, et al. Extreme Beta-Cell Deficiency in Pancreata of Dogs with Canine Diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0129809.
- Ori Y, Zingerman B, Bergman M, Bessler H, Salman H. The effect of sodium bicarbonate on cytokine secretion in CKD patients with metabolic acidosis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015;71:98-101.
- Pilon-thomas S, Kodumudi KN, El-kenawi AE, et al. Neutralization of Tumor Acidity Improves Antitumor Responses to Immunotherapy. Cancer Res. 2016;76(6):1381-90.
- Singer RB, Deering RC, Clark JK. The acute effects in man of a rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solution. II. Changes in respiration and output of carbon dioxide. J Clin Invest. 1956;35(2):245-53.
- Leibrock CB, Voelkl J, Kohlhofer U, Quintanilla-martinez L, Kuro-o M, Lang F. Bicarbonate-sensitive calcification and lifespan of klotho-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;310(1):F102-8.
- Dakam W, Shang J, Agbor G, Oben J. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and albumin on the in vitro water-holding capacity and some physiological properties of Trigonella foenum graecum L. galactomannan in rats. J Med Food. 2007;10(1):169-74.
- Mallick S, Benson R, Rath GK. Radiation induced oral mucositis: a review of current literature on prevention and management. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273(9):2285-93.
- Liu Y, Wang DK, Chen LM. The physiology of bicarbonate transporters in mammalian reproduction. Biol Reprod. 2012;86(4):99.
- Quinn P, Cooke S. Equivalency of culture media for human in vitro fertilization formulated to have the same pH under an atmosphere containing 5% or 6% carbon dioxide. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(6):1502-6.
- Kurgan DM, Kokoruz MV, Kurgan MG, Novak VL. [The Dynamics of Immunological Results of Patients with T-Cell Skin Lymphomas and Psoriasis by The Therapy of Activation Mechanisms Sanogenesis Methods]. Lik Sprava. 2015;(3-4):31-8.
- Samsoen M. Sodium bicarbonate bath and psoriasis. First open study in a single center. 2007. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290279882_Sodium_bicarbonate_bath_and_psoriasis_First_open_study_in_a_single_center [February 15, 2017].
- Verdolini R, Bugatti L, Filosa G, Mannello B, Lawlor F, Cerio RR. Old fashioned sodium bicarbonate baths for the treatment of psoriasis in the era of futuristic biologics: an old ally to be rescued. J Dermatolog Treat. 2005;16(1):26-30.
- Afsar B, Elsurer R. Association between serum bicarbonate and pH with depression, cognition and sleep quality in hemodialysis patients. Ren Fail. 2015;37(6):957-60.
- Disthabanchong S, Treeruttanawanich A. Oral sodium bicarbonate improves thyroid function in predialysis chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32(6):549-56.
- Brown JR, Block CA, Malenka DJ, O’Connor GT, Schoolwerth AC, Thompson CA. Sodium bicarbonate plus n-acetylcysteine prophylaxis : A meta-analysis. JACC. 2009;2(11):1116-1124.
- Merten GJ, Burgess WP, Rittase RA, Kennedy TP. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate: an evidence-based protocol. Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2004;3(3):138-43.
- Montalto AS, Bitto A, Irrera N, et al. CO2 pneumoperitoneum impact on early liver and lung cytokine expression in a rat model of abdominal sepsis. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(4):984-9.
- De smet HR, Bersten AD, Barr HA, Doyle IR. Hypercapnic acidosis modulates inflammation, lung mechanics, and edema in the isolated perfused lung. J Crit Care. 2007;22(4):305-13.
- Kimura D, Totapally BR, Raszynski A, Ramachandran C, Torbati D. The effects of CO2 on cytokine concentrations in endotoxin-stimulated human whole blood. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(10):2823-7.
- Gao W, Liu DD, Li D, Cui GX. Effect of Therapeutic Hypercapnia on Inflammatory Responses to One-lung Ventilation in Lobectomy Patients. Anesthesiology. 2015;122(6):1235-52.
- Cooker LA, Luneburg P, Holmes CJ, Jones S, Topley N. Interleukin-6 levels decrease in effluent from patients dialyzed with bicarbonate/lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solutions. Perit Dial Int. 2001;21 Suppl 3:S102-7.
- Takeshita K, Suzuki Y, Nishio K, et al. Hypercapnic acidosis attenuates endotoxin-induced nuclear factor-[kappa]B activation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;29(1):124-32.
- Tawfik amin A, Shiraishi N, Ninomiya S, Tajima M, Inomata M, Kitano S. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B and induction of migration inhibitory factor in tumors by surgical stress of laparotomy versus carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum: an animal experiment. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(3):578-83.
- Maurer M, Riesen W, Muser J, Hulter HN, Krapf R. Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resorption independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284(1):F32-40.
- Rojas vega S, Strüder HK, Wahrmann BV, Bloch W, Hollmann W. Bicarbonate reduces serum prolactin increase induced by exercise to exhaustion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(4):675-80.
- Strüder HK, Hollmann W, Donike M, Platen P, Weber K. Effect of O2 availability on neuroendocrine variables at rest and during exercise: O2 breathing increases plasma prolactin. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;74(5):443-9.
- Capellini VK, Restini CB, Bendhack LM, Evora PR, Celotto AC. The effect of extracellular pH changes on intracellular pH and nitric oxide concentration in endothelial and smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e62887.
- Pedoto A, Caruso JE, Nandi J, et al. Acidosis stimulates nitric oxide production and lung damage in rats. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(2):397-402.
- Sabatini S, Kurtzman NA. Bicarbonate therapy in severe metabolic acidosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(4):692-5.
- Malov IuS, Kulikov AN. [Bicarbonate deficiency and duodenal peptic ulcer]. Ter Arkh. 1998;70(2):28-32.
- Haylor J, Toner JM, Jackson PR, Ramsay LE, Lote CJ. Is the urinary excretion of prostaglandin E in man dependent on urine pH?. Clin Sci. 1985;68(4):475-7.
- Pepelko WE. The effect of cortisol upon lipolysis during cypercapnia and after beta-andrenergic blockade. Anat & Phys Pharmac. 1971. Available: http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0731124 [February 15, 2017].
- Strider JW, Masterson CG, Durham PL. Treatment of mast cells with carbon dioxide suppresses degranulation via a novel mechanism involving repression of increased intracellular calcium levels. Allergy. 2011;66(3):341-50.
- Soy FK, Ozbay C, Kulduk E, Dundar R, Yazıcı H, Sakarya EU. A new approach for cerumenolytic treatment in children: In vivo and in vitro study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;79(7):1096-100.
- Sharma AP, Singh RN, Yang C, Sharma RK, Kapoor R, Filler G. Bicarbonate therapy improves growth in children with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24(8):1509-16.
- Hess B. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and kidney stones. Arab J Urol. 2012;10(3):258-64.
- Cicerello E, Merlo F, Maccatrozzo L. Urinary alkalization for the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2010;82(3):145-8.
- Vivien P, Allannic H, Turpin J, Prunier P, Leborgne P, Loussouarn J. [A case of voluminous cystine lithiasis cured with high doses of sodium bicarbonate]. Therapie. 1971;26(1):121-7.
- Stigliani M, Manniello MD, Zegarra-moran O, et al. Rheological Properties of Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Secretion and in Vitro Drug Permeation Study: The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2016;29(4):337-45.
- Piñero-zapata M, Cinesi-gómez C, Luna-maldonado A. [Mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure on chronic treatment with benzodiazepines]. Enferm Clin. 2013;23(3):89-95.
- National Science Foundation. (2004). “Impact Of Earth’s Rising Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Found In World Oceans.” ScienceDaily. [Online].Available: www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040719092807.htm [April 2,2017].
- Poberezhskaya M. Media coverage of climate change in Russia: Governmental bias and climate science. Public understanding of science. 2014;24(1).
- Shapiro JM. Special interests and the media: Theory and an application to climate change. J. Public Econ. 2016;144:91-108.
- Abdo WF, Heunks LM. Oxygen-induced hypercapnia in COPD: myths and facts. Crit Care. 2012;16(5):323.