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The Therapeutic Properties of Orange Fruit

Oranges as Medicine

Sweet, powerfully refreshing and bursting with flavor, it’s no surprise that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world.  Most people are aware that oranges are a potent source of vitamin C, but there are a number of other nutrients within an orange that boost its medicinal value considerably.

In this chapter, we will investigate the therapeutic potential of citrus flavonoids, modified citrus pectin, vitamin C and orange juice on cancer and overall health.

Citrus Flavonoids

Flavonoids are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, teas and wines that are responsible for the diversity of colors produced by plants.1  Epidemiological studies have shown that dietary consumption of flavonoids can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease,3 asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, prostate cancer and lung cancer.4

More than 60 flavonoids have been identified in orange fruit, making them one of the most concentrated and readily available sources of flavonoids.366  A 2003 study from the UK found that a Sicilian variety of orange called Tarocco had higher concentrations of citrus flavonoids than 6 other orange varieties tested.Interestingly, flavonoids are found more abundantly in the peel than in the pulp of citrus fruit.2

Some examples of citrus flavonoids include naringin, naringenin, diosmin, hesperetin, hesperidin, quercetin, tangeretin, nobiletin.  In this section we will investigate three of them.

Citrus Flavonoids Vs. Cancer

One of the methods used by scientists to test the therapeutic value of nutrients or drugs against cancer is to add them to a test tube containing cancer cells and observe the effects.  Testing cancer cells outside of living organisms in this way is called in vitro.  Sometimes effects observed in vitro are not the same as inside living organisms, or in vivo, but many times they are, as you will see.

Naringin

In vitro studies have confirmed naringin can inhibit the growth of stomach,9 cervical,12 breast,14 and colon cancer cells,11 the spread of brain7,8 and bone cancer cells,10 and trigger cancer cell death (apoptosis) in colon,11,17 pancreatic,17 stomach,17 cervical,12,13,17 liver17 and breast cancer cells.14,17

Another popular method used by scientists to determine the value of nutrients or drugs against cancer is inducing cancer in animals – usually by injecting carcinogenic chemicals into them – and then administering the treatment and observing the outcome.

In vivo studies have confirmed naringin can inhibit the growth of colon,18 oral,19 lung20 and connective tissue tumors,16,17 the spread of skin tumors20and trigger apoptosis in colon tumors.18

A Closer Look…

  • In 2012, scientists from Sao Paulo, Brazil, investigated the effects of naringin on rats bearing connective tissue cancer. Results showed that a 25mg/kg dose of naringin administered daily for 50 days inhibited tumor growth by 75%.  Naringin also increased survival and notably, “two rats presented complete tumor regression.”16

One of the most exciting experiments on naringin was conducted in 2016 by Chinese researchers, who added naringin to skin cancer cells to determine its impact on cellular energy metabolism.  One of the key changes in the metabolism of cancer cells is increased production of lactic acid, and not only did naringin inhibit lactic acid production in the skin cancer cells, but it also completely reversed them back into normal cells.  “In summary, we demonstrated that naringin inhibits the malignant phenotype of A375 cells.” they concluded.15

Perhaps best of all, the beneficial effects of naringin can be obtained “without adverse side effects.” 59

Normally, once a ‘drug’ has proven itself in vitro and in vivo, it would move on to human testing in clinical trials, but since the average cost of phase 1 clinical trial in the United States ranges from $1.4 million to $6.6 million dollars;198 and since natural substances found in foods can’t be patented or sold by drug companies, this type of research doesn’t often receive funding and is thus rarely performed.

Many times, the only reason in vitro and in vivo studies on food nutrients are funded is so drug companies can find medicines that work and then attempt to replicate similar chemicals to patent and sell.

Naringenin

A 2015 study identified naringenin as one of 10 therapeutic agents “that may warrant further investigation to target the tumor microenvironment” for preventing and treating cancer.”64

In vitro experiments have established naringenin can inhibit the growth of breast,65,73 stomach,71 colon,66,73 skin,68,76 leukemia75 and liver cancer cells,67,77 the spread of breast,65 liver,67 skin,68 bladder,69 pancreatic,70 and stomach cancer cells,71 and trigger apoptosis in liver,67,77 stomach,71 colon,72,73 breast,73,74 leukemia75 and skin cancer cells.76

Animal experiments have verified naringenin can inhibit the growth of oral,19 stomach,78 lung81 and brain tumors,80 prevent the spread of breast tumors79 and trigger apoptosis in brain tumors.82

Synergistic enhancement of the anti-cancer effects of naringenin can be obtained by combining it with either curcumin83 or vitamin E,84 and one study reports that nano-encapsulated naringenin exhibits “significantly higher” antioxidant and anticancer properties than naringenin in free form.86

Naringenin has a “promising safety profile”133 and remarkably, it maintains its cancer-killing effects even in the presence of the environmental toxin bisphenol A.85

Hesperidin

In vitro, hesperidin can inhibit the growth of breast,134,135 immune,138 leukemia,140,141 and lung cancer cells,143  the spread of skin cancer cells,136 and trigger apoptosis in breast,135,144 immune,138 colon,139 leukemia,140,141 liver137,142 and lung cancer cells.143

Animal studies have confirmed hesperidin can inhibit the growth of colon,145 lung,146 bladder,147 oral,148,149 throat150 and stomach tumors,151 and trigger apoptosis in stomach151 and colon tumors.152

One study compared the medicinal potencies of a number of citrus flavonoids and found that hesperidin exerted a more powerful anti-cancer effect than neohesperidin, naringin and naringenin.137  With that in mind, Tunisian researchers reported in 2016 that concentrations of hesperidin were greater in organically-grown oranges than in oranges grown conventionally.6

A safety study from 1990 fed rats dietary concentrations of 0%, 1.25% or 5% methyl hesperidin for two years and concluded that the substance “lacked any carcinogenicity” in rats.193

Additional Health Effects

Antibacterial:

  • Naringin exerts a “robust antibacterial effect”21
  • Hesperidin inhibits growth of bifidobacteria153

Antioxidant:

  • Naringin neutralizes the toxic effects of herbicide paraquat22
  • Naringin prevents kidney and liver damage from acetaminophen23 and sodium arsenite24
  • Naringin prevents chemotherapy-induced kidney25 and lung damage26
  • Naringin reverses side effects of HIV medication29,30
  • Naringenin prevents damage from lead108 and endotoxin87
  • Hesperidin prevents chemically-induced kidney damage155-158
  • Hesperidin prevents chemotherapy-induced liver damage161

Antiviral:

  • Naringin28 and naringenin93 inhibit infection by sindbis virus28
  • Naringenin reduces hepatitis C virus secretions from infected cells by 80%92
  • Hesperidin prevents replication of influenza A virus162
  • Hesperidin inhibits infection by canine distemper virus163 and rotavirus164
  • Hesperidin inhibits combined viral-bacterial infections165

Arthritis:

  • Naringin prevents inflammation associated with arthritis31-34
  • Naringenin prevents inflammatory pain in mice94,95
  • Hesperidin prevents chemically-induced arthritis154,166,167

Asthma:

  • Naringin significantly reduces coughing (associated with a type of asthma that causes chronic coughing)63

Bone Health:

  • Naringin prevents the destruction of cartilage38
  • Naringin,35,36 naringenin96-99 and hesperidin168-170 prevent bone loss and accelerate bone formation

Brain Health:

  • Naringin reverses chemically-induced memory deficits39-41,47
  • Naringin improves brain function in mice with Alzheimer’s disease42,43
  • Naringin prevents brain degeneration in rats with Parkinson’s disease44-46
  • Naringin prevents chemically-induced seizures48
  • Naringenin reduces anxiety caused by lead poisoning89
  • Naringenin prevents brain damage caused by neurotoxins90 and iron102
  • Naringenin prevents Alzheimer’s disease100
  • Naringenin improves learning and memory in rats with Alzheimer’s disease101
  • Naringenin prevents cognitive decline in rats with Parkinson’s disease103
  • Hesperidin prevents brain damage from pesticides,171 heavy metals,172 and other poisons174
  • Hesperidin prevents cognitive impairment in mice with Alzheimer’s disease173
  • Hesperidin prevents brain damage caused by ionizing radiation188

Cooking:

  • Naringenin prevents toxic acrylamides from forming in food during high-heat cooking132

Dental Health:

  • Naringin remineralizes root caries (cavities) in teeth37

Depression:

  • Naringenin produces antidepressant-like behavior in rats106,107
  • Naringenin105 and hesperidin175-177 exert potent antidepressant effects

Detoxification:

  • Naringenin chelates lead from the body108

Diabetes:

  • Naringin prevents scarring of the heart caused by diabetes49
  • Naringenin prevents kidney damage caused by diabetes52,109
  • Naringenin improves glucose metabolism110,111
  • Naringin improves insulin sensitivity50,51
  • Hesperidin reduces diabetes and its complications178

Digestive Health:

  • Naringenin an effective treatment for inflammatory bowel disease120,121
  • Naringenin prevents defects of the intestinal barrier122

Exercise:

  • Naringin in combination with treadmill exercise is more effective at increasing bone strength and density than either therapy alone53
  • Hesperidin synergistically enhances the health benefits of exercise179

Eye Health:

  • Naringenin eye drops prevent chemically-induced retinal damage91
  • Hesperidin prevents eye damage caused by chemotherapy159

Food Production:

  • Naringin and Hesperidin fed to chickens elevates antioxidant levels in chicken meat; are “important additives for both the consumer and the industry.”27

Headaches:

  • Drynaria quercifolia (a plant containing naringin) alleviates painful inflammatory conditions, like headache54
  • Hesperidin may be useful for treating migraines180

Healing:

  • Naringin55 and hesperidin191 accelerate wound healing

Heart Health:

  • Naringin56 and naringenin113 prevent arterial plaque formation
  • Naringinen reduces arterial stiffness112
  • Naringenin prevents thickening of the heart muscle114

Immune System:

  • Naringenin boosts the immune system115,116
  • Naringenin significantly enhances anti-cancer immunity117-119
  • Hesperidin enhances immune systems of mice181 and irradiated mice189
  • Hesperidin enhances immune systems of broiler chickens182

Obesity:

  • Naringin significantly decreases fat mass57,59
  • Naringin prevents formation of new fat tissue58
  • Naringenin reduces body fat and suppresses weight gain123-125
  • Hesperidin improves lipid metabolism in humans183,184

Radiation protective:

  • Naringin protects skin from ultraviolet B radiation61
  • Naringin60 and naringenin126 prevent genetic damage caused by ionizing radiation
  • Naringenin prevents skin aging and wrinkle formation caused by ultraviolet B radiation127-129
  • Naringenin added to conventional sunscreen reduces its toxicity130
  • Hesperidin reduces damage caused by whole-body gamma ray irradiation185
  • Hesperidin prevents ultraviolet B radiation damage186,187

Sexual Health:

  • Naringenin aids the process of conception104
  • Naringenin prevents testicle damage caused by insecticides88
  • Hesperidin prevents testicle and sperm damage caused by chemotherapy160

Skin Health:

  • Naringin62 and hesperidin192 promote the production of skin-protective melanin
  • Naringenin “should be introduced into cosmetic products as natural tanning agents.”131

Other:

  • A mixture of citrus flavonoids Hesperidin, Troxerutin, and Diosmin applied to hemmorhoids reduces pain, bleeding and swelling in humans190

Modified Citrus Pectin

Pectin is a complex of sugar molecules (polysaccharide) heavily concentrated in the pulp and peel of citrus fruit.  Because of its gelling properties, pectin is a traditional ingredient used for making marmalades and jams.

Pectin’s long-branched chains of polysaccharides make it virtually indigestible by humans, but researchers have discovered ways to modify pectin so it can be easily absorbed into the blood stream.  Once in the bloodstream, modified citrus pectin (MCP) has proven useful for treating a number of conditions, including cancer.317  Although heat treatment and pH modifications are commonly used to create modified citrus pectin,315 high-intensity ultrasound is also effective and is said to be more ‘environmentally friendly.’316

“The more we learn about MCP, the more impressive it becomes,” said Dr. Isaac Eliaz. “With its ability to control aggressive cancers, reduce inflammation, enhance immunity, chelate heavy metals and work synergistically with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, it has earned an important role within anti-cancer and chronic disease protocols.”367

Modified Citrus Pectin vs. Cancer

Scientists have observed modified citrus pectin prevent the growth of prostate cancer cells320,322 and trigger apoptosis in lung,321 liver,321 prostate322 and eight other types of cancer cells.323

Co-administration of modified citrus pectin with two herbal products have revealed synergistic inhibitory effects on the spread of breast and prostate cancer in vitro.324 Modified citrus pectin can also eliminate chemotherapy resistance325 and increase the apoptosis-inducing effects of chemotherapy in cell cultures.326

Modified citrus pectin can prevent the growth of skin327 and sarcoma tumors in mice; including a 51% reduction in tumor size and increased survival compared to control mice.323  Another study reported a 70% reduction in colon tumor size in mice after 20 days of MCP treatment.332  Also in animals, the spread of breast,328 prostate,329 skin330 and colon tumors can be inhibited by as much as 90% using modified citrus pectin.331

Scientists from the Harry S. Truman Memorial Veteran’s Hospital in Missouri discovered that MCP prevents cancer metastasis by inhibiting circulating tumor cells from adhering and establishing themselves onto distal body tissues.318  Another mechanism behind MCP’s therapeutic effects is the inhibition of a substance called Galectin-3, which is involved in inflammation, fibrosis, heart disease, stroke and cancer.319

Studies report modified citrus pectin has no adverse side effects,339 including one study in which 15 grams MCP was administered daily to humans for 12 consecutive months.340

Additional Health Effects

Antioxidant:

  • MCP prevents liver fibrosis334
  • MCP prevents kidney injury335
  • MCP prevents damage caused by endotoxin336

Arthritis:

  • MCP is “a therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis” 337

Detoxification:

  • MCP dramatically increases urinary excretion of arsenic, cadmium and lead in humans338
  • MCP safely and dramatically detoxifies lead from children339
  • MCP reduces toxic heavy metal burden in humans by an average of 74%340

Heart Health:

  • MCP “may represent a new promising therapeutic option in heart failure”341
  • MCP decreases cardiovascular fibrosis and inflammation342,343,344
  • Galectin-3 inhibition “causes decreased atherosclerosis”345

Immune System:

  • MCP enhances anti-cancer immunity346

Inflammation:

  • MCP reduces inflammation and pain after spinal nerve injury333

Obesity:

  • MCP prevents production of new fat tissue347

Vitamin C

Although vitamin C (aka ascorbic acid or ascorbate) wasn’t officially discovered until 1928 by Hungarian biochemist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi,194 the manifestations of its deficiency, known as scurvy,195 were first documented by the physician Hippocrates in ancient Greece (460BC-370BC).368  In 1945, scientists from the University of Wisconsin found that when they deprived monkeys of vitamin C for just a few weeks, various dental issues including bleeding gums, loosening of the teeth and the formation of heavy tartar deposits were induced.196

The effects of supplemental vitamin C are highly-dependent on the dose administered.  In low doses, vitamin C behaves as an anti-oxidant, helping the body neutralize toxins and eliminate waste products.  And in high doses, vitamin C acts as a pro-oxidant that can selectively target unhealthy and even cancerous cells.197 High-doses of intravenous vitamin C have been used to treat cancer since the 1970s.200

Vitamin C vs. Cancer

One thing cancer patients all have in common is significantly depleted levels of vitamin C.222  Remarkably, some researchers have said that vitamin C might be the most important nutritional factor needed by the body to resist cancer; “There is increasing recognition that resistance to cancer depends, to a certain extent, upon the availability of certain nutritional factors, of which ascorbic acid appears to be the most important,” wrote scientist Ewan Cameron in 1982.201

An epidemiological study of people in Northern Italy reported that vitamin C intake has “possible protective activity” against skin cancer202 and greater consumption of antioxidants was associated with less aggressive prostate cancer in the United States.203  A 2014 systematic review by Chinese researchers concluded that low doses of vitamins, specifically vitamins A, C and E, can significantly reduce the risk of stomach cancer.204

In vitro studies have confirmed vitamin C can trigger apoptosis in colon,206,207,214 breast,207 skin,208 blood,209 bone marrow,209 Ehrlich acites carcinoma,205 melanoma220 and four types of malignant mesothelioma cancer cells.213

Co-administration of vitamin C and vitamin B2 can synergistically enhance apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells.210  Vitamin C loaded into tiny bubbles of fat (lipid nanoparticles) was shown to enter into cells more efficiently than free vitamin C219 and vitamin C affixed to nano-sized polymer carriers has been shown to trigger apoptosis in brain cancer cells.218

In animals, vitamin C can prevent the growth of lung,211 skin,211 ovarian,212 pancreatic,212 brain,212 malignant mesothelioma,213 colon214 and sarcoma tumors,215 and can trigger apoptosis in liver tumors.216  A nutrient mixture containing lysine, vitamin C, proline, green tea extract and other micronutrients fed to tumor-bearing mice “demonstrated a potent inhibition of [cervical] tumor growth.”217

A Closer Look…

  • An American group of scientists from Kansas administered 500mg/kg/day sodium ascorbate to liver tumor-bearing guinea pigs in 2006. Results showed that “Subcutaneous injections of ascorbate (500 mg/kg/day) inhibited tumor growth by as much as sixty-five percent, with oral supplementation reducing it by roughly fifty percent.” 216

In 1994, researchers from the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine induced tumors in mice and treated them with high-doses of vitamin C along with variations in diet.  Results showed that survival could be increased by up to 20-times simply by adjusting the animal’s nutritional intake.221

Two-time Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling and surgeon Ewan Cameron administered 10 grams/day of vitamin C to terminal cancer patients in 1976 and found that survival was increased “more than 4.2 times” compared to patients who weren’t given vitamin C.222  Other studies have confirmed vitamin C can increase survival and significantly improve the quality of life of terminal cancer patients.223-225

How does vitamin C exert its beneficial effects?  When blood levels of vitamin C are maintained at a consistently high level, it is absorbed into cancerous tissue where it produces hydrogen peroxide that kills cancer cells.199

Safety

Thanks to the work of Dr. Frederick R. Klenner, it has been known for over 70 years that vitamin C doses as high as 300,000mg (300 grams) per day in humans are safe and modern research has confirmed this finding.205,209,212,224,225,235,260

A Korean study from 2007 acknowledged that vitamin C “is considered a safe and effective therapy”225 and a 2008 study from the National Institutes of Health found that high-doses of vitamin C displayed “cytotoxicity toward a variety of cancer cells in vitro without adversely affecting normal cells.”212

One thing to be aware of is that vitamin C can increase the absorption of iron,307-309 which in small amounts is essential, but like all heavy metals, becomes toxic in excess311 and can diminish the effectiveness of vitamin C treatment.310  For these reasons, oral supplementation of vitamin C is probably best without food and to lower existing iron levels in the body, iron-chelating substances such as tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline312 or curcumin369 can be used.

Oral vs. Intravenous

There is some controversy surrounding the efficacy of various vitamin C administration methods.  While Dr. Mark Levine of the NIH claims that “…only injected ascorbate might deliver the concentrations needed to see an anti-tumor effect,”313 Dr. Steve Hickey has said, “it is not clear that intravenous vitamin C necessarily provides an advantage over oral supplements in the treatment of cancer.”314

When the body is given a high enough dose of vitamin C intravenously, much of it goes unused and is excreted in the urine, according to Dr. Hickey.  Furthermore, he makes the case that high-doses of orally administered vitamin C might even be more effective.314

While Dr. Levine claims that maximum blood levels of vitamin C are 200μM/L, Dr. Hickey maintains he has been able to generate blood levels of around 250μM/L with a single 5 gram oral dose of vitamin C and blood levels above 400μM/L with a single oral dose of liposomal vitamin C.314

Dose

For many people, a single oral dose of 2 grams of vitamin C will cause a laxative effect and anything more will be eliminated from the body.  Interestingly, bowel tolerance is said to increase dramatically when a person is ill.314  In other words, a person who would normally be able to tolerate only 2 grams might be able to tolerate 100-times that amount when sick.

Maximum blood levels of orally-ingested vitamin C can be achieved by consuming about 3 grams every four hours.  Since vitamin C is only active in the body for a few hours, frequent doses are critical to maintain consistently high blood levels.

Success Stories

Dr. Victor Marcial, radiation oncologist:

“We studied patients with advanced cancer (stage 4). 40 patients received 40,000-75,000 mg intravenously several times a week. These are patients that have not responded to other treatments. The initial tumor response rate was achieved in 75% of patients, defined as a 50% reduction or more in tumor size… Once you start using IV vitamin C, the effect is so dramatic that it is difficult to go back to not using it.”

Linus Pauling, 2x Nobel Prize Laureate:

“I became interested in vitamin C and cancer in 1971 and began working with Ewan Cameron, M.B., Ch.B., chief surgeon at Vale of Leven Hospital in Scotland.  Cameron gave 10 grams of vitamin C a day to patients with untreatable, terminal cancer.  These patients were then compared by Cameron and me to patients with the same kind of cancer at the same terminal stage who were being treated in the same hospital but by other doctors-doctors who didn’t give vitamin C, but instead just gave conventional treatments.  Cameron’s terminal cancer patients lived far longer compared to the ones who didn’t get 10 grams a day of vitamin C. The other patients lived an average of six months after they were pronounced terminal, while Cameron’s patients lived an average of about six years.”

Dr. Irwin Stone, American biochemist, chemical engineer:

“In one case where complete remission was achieved in myelogenous leukemia… the patient took 24-42 gms vitamin c per day… it is inconceivable that no-one appears to have followed this up… without the scurvy, leukemia may be a relatively benign, non-fatal condition.  I wrote a paper… in an attempt to have the therapy clinically tested… I sent it to 3 cancer journals and 3 blood journals… it was refused by all… Two without even reading it.”

Additional Health Effects

Antioxidant:

  • Vitamin C an antidote for snake venom228
  • Vitamin C a cure for carbon monoxide poisoning233
  • Vitamin C a cure for mushroom poisoning229
  • Vitamin C prevents damage caused by agricultural fungicides230 and insecticides231
  • Vitamin C prevents liver damage caused by dexmedetomidine236
  • Vitamin C prevents damage caused by monosodium glutamate237
  • Vitamin C prevents damage caused by methylmercury,238 formaldehyde239 and endotoxin241,242,245,246,248
  • Vitamin C prevents chemically-induced ulcer formation in rats240
  • Vitamin C prevents septic organ injury in mice243
  • Vitamin C prevents alcohol-induced liver fibrosis in mice244
  • Vitamin C prevents the formation of nitric oxide247
  • Vitamin C prevents kidney249 and liver damage250,251 caused by chemotherapy

Antiviral:

  • Vitamin C “kills influenza virus” 252
  • Vitamin C shortens duration of the common cold, pneumonia, malaria and diarrhea infections253
  • Vitamin C suppresses HIV replication by infected cells254
  • Vitamin C successfully treats hepatitis, mononucleosis and pneumonia255
  • Vitamin C successfully treats polio, diphtheria, herpes zoster, herpes simplex, chicken pox, influenza, measles, mumps and viral pneumonia256
  • Vitamin C successfully treats Epstein-Barr virus257
  • Vitamin C resolves all symptoms of Chikungunya fever in two days260

Arthritis:

  • Elevated free radicals and oxidative stress found in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis227

Bone Health:

  • Vitamin C prevents bone loss261
  • Vitamin C improves bone mineral density in postmenopausal women262-264
  • Vitamin C is “a skeletal anabolic agent” 265
  • Vitamin A, C and E decrease risk of hip fracture266

Brain Health:

  • Vitamin C prevents brain damage caused by methamphetamine,267 insecticides268,269 and glutamate270
  • Vitamin C deficiency increases risk of seizures271
  • Vitamin C (and zinc) deficiencies impair the physical and mental growth of children287
  • Vitamin C levels in patients with severe Parkinson’s disease were “significantly lower” 272

Depression:

  • Vitamin C reduces anxiety levels in highschool students after 14 days of supplementing 500mg276

Detoxification:

  • Vitamin C chelates lead from the bloodstream277
  • Vitamin C reduces blood levels of chemical pollutants232

Diabetes:

  • Vitamin C reduces fasting blood sugar in diabetics278,280
  • Vitamin C significantly lowers needed insulin dose for blood sugar control279

Exercise:

  • Vitamin C and low-intensity exercise prevent seizures281
  • Vitamin C has anti-seizure effects in rats performing endurance swimming282
  • Vitamin C improves blood flow and oxygen use in muscles283

Food Production:

  • Vitamin C improves growth performance and enhances stress resistance in fish303

Headaches:

  • Vitamin C and Pinus Radiata bark extract ingested for 12 months reduces headache severity and frequency by 50%284

Healing:

  • Vitamin C accelerates healing235,301
  • Vitamin C enhances cell survival and DNA repair in human fibroblasts exposed to x-rays299

Heart Health:

  • Vitamin C decreases length of hospital stay in patients following cardiac surgery304

Immune System:

  • Vitamin C enhances anti-cancer immunity285,289-292
  • Vitamin C significantly enhances immunity286-288

Inflammation:

  • Vitamin C reduces inflammation226

Lifespan:

  • Antioxidant-rich diet extends survival of mice exposed to endotoxin234
  • Vitamin C extends lifespan of tetanus patients258,259

Obesity:

  • Vitamin C intake reduces obesity in women293

Radiation protective:

  • Vitamin C prevents damage caused by ionizing radiation294,297,298
  • Vitamin C and vitamin E synergistically prevent damage caused by ionizing radiation295
  • Vitamin C and melatonin synergistically prevent damage caused by ionizing radiation296

Sexual Health:

  • Vitamin C “significantly improves sperm concentration and mobility” 274
  • Vitamin C prevents infertility in rats subjected to forced swimming stress275
  • Vitamin C promotes a healthy pregnancy273

Sleep:

  • Vitamin C prevents spatial memory impairment in rats following sleep deprivation300

Other:

  • Vitamin C resolves symptoms of burning mouth syndrome in humans302
  • Vitamin C diminishes microparticle elevations caused by SCUBA diving305
  • Vitamin C prevents complex regional pain syndrome in humans306

Orange Juice

If an orange contains all the medicines we’ve investigated above, then one would expect orange juice to also have substantial therapeutic value.

Orange Juice vs Cancer

Although studies are limited, scientists have investigated the therapeutic effects of orange juice on cancer cell cultures and in animals.  In vitro studies have confirmed orange juice can trigger apoptosis in two types of blood cancer cells.348

In vivo, researchers have experimentally induced tumors in rats and then replaced their water with orange juice to determine its effects.  Results show that orange juice can inhibit the growth of breast,349 colon,350-352 tongue352 and lung tumors,352  and can trigger apoptosis in colon tumors.350

A Closer Look…

  • In 2015, Brazilian researchers incubated two types of blood cancer cells with orange juice – one with the juice of a red-fleshed sweet orange and the other with juice from a blond orange – for 24-hours and observed the results. At the end of the study, both varieties of orange juice were found to induce apoptosis in the blood cancer cells.348
  • Mandarin orange juice was tested on rats induced with three types of cancers in a 2012 Japanese study from the Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology. Citrus juices from the satsuma mandarin orange were found to inhibit the formation of chemically-induced colon, tongue and lung tumors in rats.352
  • Canadian scientists from Western University in London, Ontario, chemically-induced breast tumors in rats and fed them orange juice to determine if it could prevent cancer formation. Published in the journal Nutrition and Cancer in 1996, results showed that rats given orange juice “had a smaller tumor burden than controls.” 349

Additional Health Effects

Antibacterial:

  • Tangerine juice concentrate is effective for “controlling unwanted microbial growth” 353

Antioxidant:

  • Orange juice consumption results in a “marked antioxidant effect”355,356

Bone Health:

  • Orange juice increases bone strength in rats358
  • Orange juice increases bone mineral density in children and adults357

Exercise:

  • Orange juice prevents exercise-induced hypoxia359
  • Orange juice improves physical performance in overweight women360

Heart Health:

  • Fermented orange juice reduces cardiovascular risk factors361

Immune System:

  • Orange juice enhances the immune system362

Inflammation:

  • Orange juice reduces inflammation354

Obesity:

  • Orange juice associated with healthier body composition in adults363
  • Orange juice decreases risk of obesity364
  • Orange juice prevents fatty liver disease365

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